3. Prognosis and Risk Scores
Table 2 shows examples of HF prognostic scores that can be easily accessed and calculated, and the strengths and limitations of the studies used to develop these scores. Clinical acumen remains important to place these risk scores in context, but methodologically sound and externally valid risk scores might help the clinician and patient. Where possible, these risk scores should be incorporated into practice and used to convey risk to patients, and between clinicians to adequately characterize the overall risk of a patient. The risk scores in Table 2 are not exhaustive; others exist and could be considered by clinicians.